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In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene (one from each parent).Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.ammonoid: Extinct relatives of cephalopods (squid, octopi, and chambered nautiluses), these mollusks had coiled shells and are found in the fossil record of the Cretaceous period.amniotes: The group of reptiles, birds, and mammals.
adaptive radiation: The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches (for example, Darwin's finches).artifact: An object made by humans that has been preserved and can be studied to learn about a particular time period.artificial selection: The process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.analogous structures: Structures in different species that look alike or perform similar functions (e.g., the wings of butterflies and the wings of birds) that have evolved convergently but do not develop from similar groups of embryological tissues, and that have not evolved from similar structures known to be shared by common ancestors. Note: The recent discovery of deep genetic homologies has brought new interest, new information, and discussion to the classical concepts of analogous and homologous structures.anatomy: (1) The structure of an organism or one of its parts. ancestral homology: Homology that evolved before the common ancestor of a set of species, and which is present in other species outside that set of species. anthropoid: A member of the group of primates made up of monkeys, apes, and humans.